Japanese Grammar Plug and Play
Japanese Lesson #89– Verb (Base I) + ZU NI IRARENAI (Verb + ず に いられない)
(I can’t help but verb)
Today’s Japanese grammar lesson makes use of verbs in Base I. Verbs put into base I always end with the syllable, A (あ) (Pronounced aw as in awful, or awesome). We could think of verbs in Base I as links to negative states or conditions in verbs. Verbs in Base I are usually followed by the word NAI ( ない)- Nai is comparable to the English word not. For example, in English, we say that we can do something or we can not do something, or we say that we will do something, or, will not do something.
- As verbs in Base III tend toward affirmative, verb in Base I tend toward the negative -
The verb to be able to, or, DEKIRU (できる) in base III is positive affirmative, while DEKINAI, which is DEKIRU in Base I + nai is not positive nor affirmative, but negative. Base I forms are like linkage for putting words in their not positive, not affirmative conditions.
DEKINAI (できない) is to CAN’T as
DEKIRU (できる) is to CAN.
SHINAI (しない) is to WON’T DO as
SURU (する) is to WILL DO.
In order to put verbs into bases, it’s necessary to understand the difference between Ichidan 一段verbs ( vowel stemmed verbs) and Yo^dan ようだん or Godan verbs (consonant stemmed verbs). I was taught that there exists three types of verbs but these types are unrelated to the three types of English verbs. In English, the three types of verbs are passive, active and forms of the copula- to be. In Japanese you have kami ichidan katsuyo verbs, godan katsuyo verbs and irregular verbs.
1. KANASHIKATTA NODE NAKAZU NI IRARENAI -
I was so sad, I couldn’t help but cry.
NAKU ( 泣く)– v. to cry
in Base I – NAKA ( 泣か)
NAKA + ZU + NI IRARENAI 泣かずにいられない
2. GAMAN DEKINAKUNATTA NODE KAERAZU NI IRARENAI –
Things got so bad, I couldn’t take it anymore. I couldn’t help but go back home.
KAERU ( 帰る)– v. to return home, to go back
in Base I, KAERA ( 帰ら)
KAERA + ZU NI IRARENAI 帰らずにいられない
3. TAIHEN BYO^KI NI NATTA NODE, HAKIDASAZU NI IRARENAI –
I got so sick I couldn’t help but throw-up.
HAKIDASU (吐き出す) – v. to throw up, vomit, spit out
in Base I, HAKIDASA (吐き出さ)
HAKIDASA+ ZU NI IRARENAI 吐き出さずにいられない
4. KIITE ITA ONGAKU WA SUGOKU OMOSHIROKATTA NODE, ODORAZU NI IRARENAI –
The music was we were listening to was so good, I couldn’t help but dance.
ODORU ( 躍る)– v. To dance
in Base I, ODORA (躍ら)
ODORA + ZU NI IRARENAI 躍らずにいられない
These examples are extreme to show that you can make up any type of sentence you want using the grammar practice constructions and it will benefit your Japanese language skills immensely useful. There you have it! Another plug and play grammar principle you can use to add to your arsenal of Japanese language weaponry, which, depending on you, can take you yet another step towards better Japanese.
Ganbatte Ne! 頑張ってね!
Do Your Best!
learn to count in Japanese
some quick Japanese grammar
Reverse English learning for Japanese Speakers
http://saketalkie.blogspot.com candid discussions on all sorts of Japanese topics especially how to speak Japanese
study Japanese with the help of you- Super Japanese accelerated language learning 3 cubed
for other language speakers that want to learn Japanese, try the following
Towards Better Japanese
Do Your Best!